The Victorian’s Language of Flowers

“Do you remember the flowers you sent me, when, at that crowded assembly, you could neither speak nor extend your hand to me? Half the night I was on my knees before those flowers,
and I regarded them as the pledges of your love; but those impressions grew fainter, and were at length effaced.”



The idea of assigning meanings to flowers is nothing new. Humans have been using plants, rocks, animals, and a number of of other objects to symbolize complex emotions for as long as we’ve been telling each other stories. Though the Victorians are the most well known group to use flowers convey special meanings, they actually borrowed the idea from the Turks, who were already flower experts.


The Turkish flower language was called selam or salaam; words that are also a greeting. Selam was not based on symbolic meaning like the Victorians, but rather clever word play. The flowers, herbs, or fruit were given as gift accompanied by a short message with a missing word that would rhyme with the plant’s name. For instance, the phrase “Do not” might be sent with a pear to mean, “Do not despair.” This system kept the message secret among the people exchanging the message.


Selam made the jump to England with Seigneur Aubry de la Mottraye, who wrote about his experiences in the court of Charles XII of Sweden exiled to Turkey, and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu who has the wife of the English ambassador to Turkey. The Victorian’s embraced the concept of selam but added their own unique spin to the custom.


For context, he Victorian Era was time when citizens were expected to be upright and moral. Society was was much more restrictive than it is now. Many topics were taboo, and it was socially forbidden to openly ask about relationships, or even converse freely with people of the opposite gender. To be able to flirt discreetly or send other wise private messages, Victorian sweet hearts needed a subtle system of communication. They began to use flowers to represent concepts or ideas, which could be used to share their true feelings. Many of these associations, like red roses symbolizing love, are still around today.


As flower messages began to become popular, lists of flower meanings started to circulate. Several books were even written on the subject, assigning each flower a meaning or set of meanings. Some meanings contradicted themselves, which gave flower senders the opportunity to create more complex, nuanced bouquets. Not all flower dictionaries were the same either, so it was important for lovers to make sure that their partner had the same book to avoid sending an unintended message.


As society changed and conventions loosened, the language of flowers was no longer needed to send secret messages. Today, it’s a fun, unconventional way to send a heartfelt message to someone important. Below is a comprehensive list of flowers, herbs, fruits, and trees along with their meanings based on the book, The Language of Flowers, by Kate Greenaway (read it here). There are plenty of plants for you to plan a few of your own emblematic bouquets.





Abecedary – Volatility

Abatina – Fickleness

Acacia – Friendship

Acacia, Rose or White – Elegance

Acacia, Yellow – Secret love

Acanthus – The arts, Artifice

Acalia – Temperance

Achillea Millefolia –  War

Aconite (Wolfsbane) – Misanthropy

Aconite, Crowfoot – Luster

Adonis, Flos – Painful recollections

Acorn – Life, Immortality

African Marigold – Vulgar minds

Agnus Castus – Coldness, Indifference

Agrimony – Thankfulness, Gratitude

Almond (Common) – Stupidity, Indiscretion

Almond (Flowering) – Hope

Almond, Laurel –  Perfidy

Allspice – Compassion

Aloe – Grief, Religious superstition

Althaea Frutex – Persuasion

Alyssum (Sweet) – Worth beyond beauty

Amaranth (Globe) – Immortality, Unfading love

Amaryllis – Pride

Ambrosia – Love returned

American Cowslip – Divine beauty

American Elm – Patriotism

American Linden – Matrimony

American Starwort – Welcome to a stranger, Cheerfulness in old age

Amethyst – Admiration

Anemone (Zephyr Flower) – Sickness, Expectation

Anemone (Garden) – Forsaken

Angelica – Inspiration

Angrec – Royalty

Apple – Temptation

Apple (Blossom) – Preference, Fame speaks him great and good

Apple, Thorn – Deceitful charms

Apocynum (Dog’s Vane) – Deceit

Arbor Vitæ – Unchanging Friendship, Live for me

Arum (Wake Robin) – Ardor

Ash-leaved Trumpet Flower – Separation

Ash Tree – Grandeur

Aspen Tree – Lamentation

Aster – Love, Daintiness

Aster (China) – Afterthought

Asphodel – My regrets follow you to the grave

Auricula – Painting

Auricula, Scarlet – Avarice

Austurtium – Splendor

Azalea – Temperance, Take care of yourself for me



Bachelor’s Buttons  – Celibacy

Balm – Sympathy

Balm, Gentle – Pleasantry

Balm of Gilead – Cure, Relief

Balsam, Red – Touch me not, Impatient resolves

Balsam, Yellow – Impatience

Barberry – Sourness of temper

Barberry Tree – Sharpness

Basil – Hatred

Bay Leaf – I change but in death

Bay (Rose) Rhododendron – Danger, Beware

Bay Tree – Glory

Bay Wreath – Reward of merit

Bearded Crepis – Protection

Beech Tree – Prosperity

Bee Orchid – Industry

Bee Ophrys – Error

Begonia – Beware

Belladonna – Silence

Bell Flower, Pyramidal – Constancy

Bell Flower (small white) – Gratitude

Bells of Ireland – Good luck

Belvedere – I declare against you

Betony – Surprise

Bilberry – Treachery

Bindweed, Great – Insinuation

Bindweed, Small – Humility

Birch – Meekness

Birdsfoot Trefoil – Revenge

Bittersweet – Truth

Black Poplar – Courage

Blackthorn – Difficulty

Bladder Nut Tree – Frivolity, Amusement

Bluebottle (Centaury) – Delicacy

Bluebell – Constancy, Humility

Blue Greek Valerian – Rupture

Boras Henricus – Goodness

Borage – Bluntness

Box Tree – Stoicism

Bramble – Lowliness, Envy, Remorse

Branch of Currants – You please all

Branch of Thorns – Severity, Rigor

Bridal Rose – Happy love

Broom – Humility, Neatness

Buckbean – Calm repose

Bud of White Rose – Heart ignorant of love

Bugloss – Falsehood

Bulrush – Indiscretion, Docility

Burdock- Importunity, Touch me not

Buttercup (Kingcup) – Ingratitude, Childishness

Butterfly Orchid – Gaiety

Butterfly Weed – Let me go



Cabbage – Profit

Cacalia – Adulation

Cactus – Warmth, Endurance

Calla Æthiopica  – Magnificent Beauty

Calycanthui – Benevolence

Camellia Japonica – Admiration

Camellia Japonica, Red – Unpretending excellence

Camellia Japonica, Pink – You are adorable

Camellia Japonica, White – Perfected loveliness

Camomile – Energy in adversity

Canary Grass – Perseverance

Candytuft – Indifference

Canterbury Bell – Acknowledgement

Cape Jasmine – I’m too happy

Cardamine  – Paternal error

Carnation – Divine Love

Carnation, Pink – I will never forget you

Carnation, Purple – Capriciousness

Carnation, Red – My heart aches for you

Carnation, Solid – Yes

Carnation, Striped – No, Refusal

Carnation, White – Sweet, Lovely

Carnation, Yellow – Disdain

Cardinal Flower – Dittitutim

Catchfly – Snare

Catchfly, Red – Youthful love

Catchfly, White – Betrayed

Cattail – Peace, Prosperity

Cedar – Strength

Cedar of Lebanon – Incorruptible

Cedar Leaf – I live for thee

Celandine (Lesser) – Joys to come

Cereus (Creeping) – Modest genius

Centaury – Delicacy

Champignon – Suspicion

Chequered Fritillary – Persecution

Cherry Tree – Good education

Cherry Tree, White – Deception

Chestnut Tree – Do me justice, Luxury

Chickweed – Rendezvous

Chicory – Frugality

China Aster – Variety

China Aster, Double – I partake your sentiments

China Aster, Single – I will think of it

China or Indian Pink – Aversion

China Rose – Beauty always new

Chinese Chrysanthemum – Cheerfulness under adversity

Chrysanthemum – Friendship, Cheerfulness

Chrysanthemum, Red – I love

Chrysanthemum, White – Truth

Chrysanthemum, Yellow – Slighted love

Cinquefoil – Maternal affection

Circaa – Spell

Cistus, or Rock Rose – Popular favor

Cistus, Gum – I shall die to-morrow

Citron – Ill-natured beauty

Clematis – Mental beauty

Clematis, Evergreen – Poverty

Clotbur – Rudeness, Pertinacity

Cloves – Dignity

Clover, Four-leaved – Be mine

Clover, Red – Industry

Clover, White – Think of me

Cobæea – Gossip

Cockscomb Amaranth – Foppery, Affectation, Singularity

Coltsfoot – Justice shall be done

Columbine – Folly

Columbine, Purple – Resolved to win

Columbine, Red – Anxious and trembling

Convolvulus – Bonds

Convolvulus, Blue (Minor) – Repose, Night

Convolvulus, Major – Extinguished hopes

Convolvulus, Pink – Worth sustained by judicious and tender affection

Corchorus – Impatient of absence

Coreopsis – Always cheerful

Coreopsis Arkansa – Love at first sight

Coriander – Hidden worth

Corn – Riches

Corn, Broken – Quarrel

Corn Straw – Agreement

Corn Bottle – Delicacy

Corn Cockle – Gentility

Cornel Tree – Duration

Coronella – Success crown your wishes

Cowslip – Pensiveness, Winning grace

Cowslip, American – Divine beauty, You are my divinity

Cranberry – Cure for heartache

Creeping Cereus – Horror

Cress – Stability, Power

Crocus – Abuse not

Crocus, Spring – Youthful gladness

Crocus, Saffron – Mirth

Crown Imperial – Majesty, Power

Crowsbill – Envy

Crowfoot – Ingratitude

Cuckoo Plant – Ardor

Cudweed, American – Unceasing remembrance

Currant – Thy frown will kill me

Cuscuta – Meanness

Cyclamen – Diffidence, Goodbye

Cypress – Death, Mourning



Daffodil – Regard

Dahlia – Instability

Daisy – Innocence

Daisy, Garden – I share your sentiments

Daisy, Michaelmas – Farewell

Daisy, Party-coloured – Beauty

Daisy, Wild – I will think of it

Damask Rose – Brilliant complexion

Dandelion – Faithfulness, Happiness

Daphne Odora – Painting the lily

Darnel (Ray grass) – Vice

Dead Leaves – Sadness

Dew Plant – A serenade

Dittany of Crete – Birth

Dittany of Crete, White – Passion

Dock – Patience

Dodder of Thyme – Baseness

Dogsbane – Deceit, Falsehood

Dogwood – Durability

Dragon Plant – Snare

Dragonwort – Horror

Dried Flax – Utility



Ebony Tree – Blackness

Eglantine (Sweetbrier) – Poetry, I wound to heal

Elder – Zealousness

Elm – Dignity

Enchanter’s Nightshade – Witchcraft, Sorcery

Endive – Frugality

Eupatorium – Delay

Everflowering Candytuft – Indifference

Evergreen Clematis – Poverty

Evergreen Thorn – Solace in adversity

Everlasting – Never-ceasing remembrance

Everlasting Pea – Lasting pleasure



Fennel – Worthy all praise, Strength

Fern – Fascination

Fern, Maidenhair – Secret bond of love

Ficoides, Ice Plant – Your looks freeze me

Fig – Argument

Fig Marigold – Idleness

Fig Tree – Prolific

Filbert – Reconciliation

Fir – Time

Fir Tree – Elevation

Flax – Domestic Industry, Fate, I feel your kindness

Flax-leaved Goldy-locks – Tardiness

Fleur-de-Lis – Flame, I burn

Fleur-de-Luce – Fire

Flowering Fern -Reverie

Flowering Reed – Confidence in Heaven

Flower-of-an-Hour – Delicate Beauty

Fly Orchid – Error

Flytrap – Deceit

Fool’s Parsley – Silliness

Forget Me Not – True love, Forget me not

Forsythia – Anticipation

Foxglove – Insincerity

Foxtail Grass – Sporting

French Honeysuckle – Rustic beauty

French Marigold – Jealousy

French Willow – Bravery, humanity

Frog Ophrys – Disgust

Fuller’s Teasel – Misanthropy

Fumitory – Spleen

Fuchsia, Scarlet – Taste



Garden Anemone – Forsaken

Garden Chervil – Sincerity

Garden Daisy – I partake your sentiments

Garden Marigold – Uneasiness

Garden Ranunculus – You are rich in attractions

Garden Sage – Esteem

Gardenia – You are lovely, secret love

Garland of Roses – Reward of virtue

Garlic – Courage, Strength

Germander Speedwell – Facility

Geranium, Dark – Melancholy

Geranium, Ivy – Bridal favor

Geranium, Lemon – Unexpected meeting

Geranium, Nutmeg – Expected meeting

Geranium, Oak-leaved – True friendship

Geranium, Pencilled – Ingenuity

Geranium, Rose-scented – Preference

Geranium, Scarlet – Stupidity

Geranium, Silver-leaved – Recall

Geranium, Wild – Steadfast piety

Gillyflower – Bonds of affection

Gladiolus – I am truly sincere

Glory Flower – Glorious beauty

Gloxinia – Love at first sight

Goat’s Rue – Reason

Golden Rod – Precaution

Gooseberry – Anticipation

Gourd – Extent, Bulk

Grape, Wild – Charity

Grass – Submission



Hand Flower Tree – Warning

Harebell – Submission, Grief

Hawkweed – Quicksightedness

Hawthorn – Hope

Hazel – Reconciliation

Heather, Lavender – Solitude

Heather, White – Protection

Helenium – Tears

Heliotrope – Devotion, Faithfulness

Hellebore – Scandal, Calumny

Hemlock – You will be my death

Hemp – Fate

Henbane – Imperfection

Hepatica – Confidence

Hibiscus – Delicate beauty

Holly – Foresight

Holly Herb – Enchantment

Hollyhock – Ambition, Fecundity

Honesty – Honesty, Fascination

Honey Flower – Love sweet and secret

Honeysuckle – Generous and devoted affection

Honeysuckle Coral – The color of my fate

Honeysuckle, French – Rustic beauty

Hop – Injustice

Hornbeam – Ornament

Horse Chestnut – Luxury

Hortensia – You are cold

Houseleek – Vivacity, Domestic industry

Houstonia – Content

Hoya – Sculpture

Humble Plant – Despondency

Hundred-leaved Rose – Dignity of mind

Hyacinth – Rashness

Hyacinth, Blue – Constancy

Hyacinth, Purple – Forgive me, Sorrow

Hyacinth, Red or Pink – Fun, Play

Hyacinth, White – Unobtrusive Loveliness

Hyacinth, Yellow – Jealousy

Hydrangea – A boaster, Heartlessness

Hyssop – Cleanliness



Iceland Moss – Health

Ice Plant – Your looks freeze me

Imperial Montague – Power

Indian Cress – Warlike trophy

Indian Jasmine – Attachment

Indian Pink (Double) – Always lovely

Indian Plum – Privation

Iris – Message

Iris, German – Flame

Ivy – Fidelity, Marriage

Ivy sprig with tendrils – Assiduous to please



Jacob’s Ladder – Come down

Japan Rose  – Beauty is your only attraction

Jasmine – Amiability

Jasmine, Cape – Transport of joy

Jasmine, Carolina – Separation

Jasmine, Indian – I attach myself to you

Jasmine, Spanish – Sensuality

Jasmine, Yellow – Grace and elegance

Jonquil – Love me, Return my affection

Judas Tree – Unbelief, Betrayal

Juniper – Succor, Protection

Justicia – The perfection of female loveliness



Laburnum – Forsaken, Pensive beauty

Lady’s Slipper – Capricious beauty, Win me and wear me

Lagerstræmia, Indian – Eloquence

Lantana – Rigor

Larch – Audacity, Boldness

Larkspur – Lightness, Levity

Larkspur, Pink – Fickleness

Larkspur, Purple – Haughtiness

Laurel – Glory

Laurel, Ground – Perseverance

Laurel, Mountain – Ambition

Laurel-leaved Magnolia – Dignity

Laurestina – A token, I die if neglected

Lavender – Distrust

Leaves (dead) – Melancholy, Sadness

Lemon – Zest

Lemon Blossoms – Fidelity in lore

Lettuce – Cold-heartedness

Lichen – Dejection, Solitude

Lilac, Calla – Beauty

Lilac, Field – Humility

Lilac, Purple – First emotions of love

Lilac, White – Youthful Innocence

Lily, Day – Coquetry

Lily, Imperial – Majesty

Lilac, Orange – Hatred

Lilac, Tiger – Wealth, Pride

Lily, White – Purity, Sweetness

Lily, Yellow – Falsehood, Gaiety

Lily of the Valley – Return of happiness

Linden or Lime Trees  – Conjugal love

Lint – I feel my obligations

Live Oak – Liberty

Liverwort – Confidence

Licorice, Wild – I declare against you

Lobelia – Malevolence

Locust Tree – Elegance

Locust Tree (green) – Affection beyond the grave

London Pride – Frivolity

Lote Tree – Concord

Lotus – Eloquence

Lotus Flower – Estranged love

Lotus Leaf – Recantation

Love in a Mist – Perplexity

Love lies Bleeding – Hopeless, not heartless

Lucern – Life

Lupine – Voraciousness, Imagination



Madder – Calumny

Magnolia – Nobility

Magnolia, Swamp – Perseverance

Mallow – Mildness

Mallow, Marsh – Beneficence

Mallow, Syrian – Consumed by love

Mallow, Venetian – Delicate beauty

Manchineal Tree – Falsehood

Mandrake – Horror

Maple – Reserve

Marigold – Grief

Marigold, African – Vulgar minds

Marigold, French – Jealousy

Marigold, Prophetic – Prediction

Marigold and Cypress – Despair

Marjoram – Blushes

Marvel of Peru – Timidity

Meadow Lychnis – Wit

Meadow Saffron – My fast days are fast

Meadowsweet – Uselessness

Mercury – Goodness

Mesembryanthemum – Idleness

Mezereon – Desire to please

Mignionette – Your qualities surpass your charms

Milfoil – War

Milk vetch – Your presence softens my pains

Milkwort – Hermitage

Mimosa – Sensitiveness

Mint – Virtue

Mistletoe – I surmount difficulties, Kiss me

Mock Orange – Counterfeit

Monkshood – Beware, A deadly foe is near

Moonwort – Forgetfulness

Morning Glory – Affectation

Moschatel- Weakness

Moss – Maternal love

Mosses – Ennui

Mossy Saxifrage – Affection

Motherwort – Concealed love

Mountain Ash –  Prudence

Mourning Bride – Unfortunate attachment, I have lost all

Mouse-eared Chickweed – Ingenuous simplicity

Moving Plant – Agitation

Mudwort – Tranquillity

Mugwort – Happiness

Mulberry Tree (Black) – I shall not survive you

Mulberry Tree (White) – Wisdom

Mushroom – Suspicion

Musk Plant – Weakness

Mustard Seed – Indifference

Myrobalan – Privation

Myrrh – Gladness

Myrtle – Love



Narcissus – Egotism

Nasturtium – Patriotism, Victory

Nettle, Burning – Slander

Nettle Tree – Concert

Night-blooming Cereus – Transient beauty

Night Convolvulus – Night

Nightshade – Truth



Oak Leaves – Bravery

Oak Tree  – Hospitality

Oak, White – Independence

Oats – The witching soul of music

Oleander – Beware

Olive – Peace

Orange Blossoms – Innocence, Eternal love, Marriage

Orange Flowers – Chastity, Bridal festivities

Orange Tree – Generosity

Orchid – Love, beauty, refinement

Osier – Frankness

Osmunda – Dreams

Ox Eye – Patience



Palm – Victory

Pansy – Thoughts

Parsley – Festivity

Pasque Flower – You have no claims

Passion Flower – Religious superstition

Patience Dock – Patience

Pea, Everlasting – An appointed meeting, Lasting pleasure

Pea, Sweet – Departure

Peach – Your qualities, like your charms, are unequalled

Peach Blossom – I am your captive

Pear –  Affection

Pear Tree – Comfort

Pennyroyal – Flee away

Peony – Shame, Bashfulness

Peppermint – Warmth of feeling

Periwinkle, Blue – Early friendship

Periwinkle, White – Pleasures of memory

Persicaria – Restoration

Persimon – Bury me amid Nature’s beauties

Peruvian Heliotrope – Devotion

Petunia – Resentment, Anger, You soothe me

Pheasant’s Eye – Remembrance

Phlox – Unanimity

Pigeon Berry – Indifference

Pimpernel – Change, Assignation

Pine – Pity

Pineapple- You are perfect

Pine, Pitch – Philosophy

Pine, Spruce – Hope in adversity

Plane Tree – Genius

Plum, Indian – Privation

Plum Tree – Fidelity

Plum, Wild – Independence

Polyanthus – Pride of riches

Polyanthus, Crimson – The heart’s mystery

Polyanthus, Lilac – Confidence

Pomegranate – Foolishness

Pomegranate, Flower – Mature elegance

Poplar, Black – Courage

Poplar, White – Time

Poppy – Eternal sleep, Oblivion

Poppy, Red – Pleasure

Poppy, White – Sleep, My bane, My antidote

Poppy, Yellow – Wealth, Success

Potato – Benevolence

Prickly Pear – Satire

Pride of China – Dissension

Primrose – I cannot live without you

Primrose, Evening – Inconstancy

Primrose, Red – Unpatronized merit

Privet – Prohibition

Purple Clover – Provident

Pyrus Japonica – Fairies’ fire



Quaking-Grass – Agitation

Quamoclit – Busybody

Queen’s Rocket – You are the queen of coquettes, Fashion

Quince – Temptation



Ragged Robin – Wit

Ranunculus – You are radiant with charms

Ranunculus, Garden – You are rich in attractions

Ranunculus, Wild – Ingratitude

Raspberry – Remorse

Ray Grass – Vice

Red Catchfly – Youthful lore

Reed – Complaisance, Music

Reed, Split – Indiscretion

Reeds, with Panicles – Music

Rhododendron (Rosebay) – Danger, Beware

Rhubarb – Advice

Rocket – Rivalry

Rose – Love

Rose, Austrian – Thou art all that is lovely

Rose, Bridal – Happy love

Rose, Burgundy – Unconscious beauty

Rose, Cabbage – Ambassador of love

Rose, Campion – Only deserve my love

Rose, Carolina – Love is dangerous

Rose, China – Beauty always new

Rose, Christmas – Tranquilize my anxiety

Rose, Coral – Desire

Rose, Daily – Thy smile I aspire to

Rose, Damask – Brilliant complexion

Rose, Deep Pink – Thankfulness

Rose, Deep Crimson – Mourning

Rose, Dog – Pleasure and pain

Rose, Guelder – Winter, Age

Rose, Hundred-leaved – Pride

Rose, Japan – Beauty is your only attraction

Rose, Lavender – Enchantment

Rose, Maiden Blush – If you love me, you will find it out

Rose, Multiflora – Grace

Rose, Mundi – Variety

Rose, Musk – Capricious beauty

Rose, Musk, Cluster – Charming

Rose, Orange – Fascination

Rose, Pale peach – Modesty

Rose, Pale pink – Grace, joy

Rose, Red – Love

Rose, Single – Simplicity, I love you, I still love you

Rose, Thornless – Early attachment, Love at first sight

Rose, White – I am worthy of you

Rose, White (withered) – Transient impressions

Rose, Yellow – Decrease of love, Jealously

Rose, York and Lancaster – War

Rose, White with Red – Unity

Roses, Bouquet in Bloom – Gratitude

Roses, Crown of – Reward of virtue, Superior merit

Rosebud, Red – Pure and lovely

Rosebud, White – Girlhood

Rosebud, Moss – Confession of love

Rosemary – Remembrance

Rudbeckia – Justice

Rue – Disdain

Rush – Docility

Rye Grass – Changeable disposition



Saffron – Beware of excess

Saffron Crocus – Mirth

Saffron, Meadow – My happiest days are past

Sage – Domestic virtue

Sage, Garden – Esteem

Sainfoin – Agitation

Saint John’s Wort – Animosity, Superstition

Sardony – Irony

Saxifrage, Mossy – Affection

Scabious – Unfortunate love

Scabious, Sweet – Widowhood

Scarlet Lychnis – Sunbeaming eyes

Schinus – Religious enthusiasm

Scotch Fir – Elevation

Sensitive Plant – Sensibility, Delicate feelings

Senvy – Indifference

Shamrock – Lightheartedness

Smilax – Loveliness

Snakesfoot – Horror

Snapdragon – Presumption, Deception

Snowdrop – Hope

Sorrel – Affection

Sorrel, Wild – Wit ill-timed

Sorrel, Wood – Joy

Southernwood – Jest, Bantering

Spanish Jasmine – Sensuality

Spearmint – Warmth of sentiment

Speedwell – Female fidelity

Speedwell, Germander – Facility

Speedwell, Spiked – Semblance

Spider, Ophrys – Adroitness

Spider Flower – Elope with me

Spiderwort – Esteem not love

Spiked Willow Herb – Pretension

Spindle Tree – Your charms are written on my heart

Star of Bethlehem – Purity

Starwort – Afterthought

Starwort, American – Cheerfulness in old age

Stephanotis – Happiness in marriage

Stock – Lasting beauty

Stock, Ten Week – Promptness

Stonecrop – Tranquillity

Straw, Broken – Rupture of a contract

Straw, Whole – Union

Strawberry Tree – Esteem and love

Sumach, Venice – Splendor, Intellectual excellence

Sunflower, Dwarf – Adoration

Sunflower, Tall – Haughtiness

Swallow-wort – Cure for heartache

Sweet Basil – Good wishes

Sweetbrier, American – Simplicity

Sweetbrier, European – I wound to heal

Sweetbrier, Yellow – Decrease of love

Sweet Pea – Goodbye, Thank you for a lovely time, Delicate pleasures

Sweet Sultan – Felicity

Sweet William – Gallantry

Sycamore – Curiosity

Syringa – Memory

Syringa, Carolina – Disappointment



Tamarisk – Crime

Tansy (Wild) – I declare war against you

Teasel – Misanthropy

Tendrils of Climbing Plants – Ties

Thistle, Common – Austerity

Thistle, Fuller’s – Misanthropy

Thistle, Scotch – Retaliation

Thorn Apple – Deceitful charms

Thorn, Branch of – Severity

Thrift – Sympathy

Throatwort – Neglected beauty

Thyme – Activity

Tiger Flower – For once may pride befriend me

Traveller’s Joy – Safety

Tree of Life – Old age

Trefoil – Revenge

Tremella Nestoc – Resistance

Trillium Pictum – Modest beauty

Truffle – Surprise

Trumpet Flower – Fame

Tuberose – Dangerous pleasures

Tulip – Fame

Tulip, Red – Declaration of love

Tulip, Variegated – Beautiful eyes

Tulip, Yellow – Hopeless love

Turnip – Charity

Tussilage (Sweet-scented) – Justice shall be done you



Valerian – An accommodating disposition

Valerian, Greek – Rupture

Venice Sumach – Intellectual excellence. Splendor

Venus’ Car – Fly with me

Venus’ Looking-glass – Flattery

Venus’ Trap – Deceit

Vernal Grass – Poor, but happy

Veronica – Fidelity

Vervain – Enchantment

Vine – Intoxication

Violet – Modesty

Violet, Blue – Faithfulness

Violet, Dame – Watchfulness

Violet, Sweet – Modesty

Violet, White – Let’s take a chance of happiness

Violet, Yellow – Rural happiness

Virginian Spiderwort – Momentary happiness

Virgin’s Bower – Filial love

Viscaria – Will you dance with me?

Volkamenia – May you be happy



Walnut – Intellect, Stratagem

Wall-flower – Fidelity in adversity

Water Lily – Purity of heart

Water Melon – Bulkiness

Wax Plant – Susceptibility

Wheat Stalk – Riches

Whin – Anger

White Jasmine – Agreeableness

White Lily – Purity and Modesty

White Mullein – Good nature

White Oak – Independence

White Pink – Talent

White Poplar – Time

White Rose (dried) – Death preferable to loss of innocence

Whortleberry – Treason

Willow, Creeping – Love forsaken

Willow, Water – Freedom

Willow, Weeping – Mourning

Willow-Herb – Pretension

Willow, French – Bravery and humanity

Winter Cherry – Deception

Witch Hazel – A spell

Woodbine – Fraternal love

Wood Sorrel – Joy, Maternal tenderness

Wormwood – Absence



Xanthium – Rudeness, Pertinacity

Xeranthemum – Cheerfulness under adversity



Yew – Sorrow



Zephyr Flower – Expectation

Zinnia, Magenta – Lasting affection

Zinnia, Mixed – Memory of an absent friend

Zinnia, Scarlet – Constancy

Zinnia, White – Goodness

Zinnia, Yellow – Daily remembrance